Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)

LEAF ANATOMY AND MICROMORPHOLOGY OF SELECTED EUPHORBIACEAE SPECIES IN KUANTAN, PAHANG, MALAYSIA

Author archives:

LEAF ANATOMY AND MICROMORPHOLOGY OF SELECTED EUPHORBIACEAE SPECIES IN KUANTAN, PAHANG, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT

LEAF ANATOMY AND MICROMORPHOLOGY OF SELECTED EUPHORBIACEAE SPECIES IN KUANTAN, PAHANG, MALAYSIA

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Asiah Nabihan Ishak, Che Nurul Aini Che Amri, Rozilawati Shahari, Nur Shuhada Tajudin

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2021.42.44

Leaf anatomy and micromorphology study was carried out on three selected taxa in Euphorbiaceae. The three chosen taxa were Jatropha curcas Linn., Euphorbia milii Des Moul. and Euphorbia hirta Linn. The methods involved procedures such as sectioning using sliding microtome, epidermal peeling and leaf micromorphology method using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The aim of this study is to identify the common, variation and diagnostic characteristics of leaf anatomy and micromorphology of selected species collected from Kuantan area which can give additional information for identification and classification of species. Findings in this study have shown that there were two common characters present in all the species studied which include the presence of mucilage cells and cuticular sculpturing of abaxial and adaxial epidermis. Meanwhile, several variable characters have been recorded in this study which can be useful in species differentiation such as vascular bundles arrangement in the midrib, pattern of anticlinal wall, types of stomata, waxes and trichomes. The diagnostic characteristics identified in this study are sinuous anticlinal wall pattern and anomocytic type of stomata that can only be found in E.hirta while crust of wax type and absence of trichomes can only be found in E.milii. The study reveals that leaf anatomy and micromorphology characteristics have taxonomic values and can be used as an additional data for identification and classification of species in Euphorbiaceae.
Pages 42-44
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

Download

Posted by din

THE APPLICATION OF STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF TIME IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

ABSTRACT

THE APPLICATION OF STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL TO IMPROVE THE PERFORMANCE OF TIME IN CONSTRUCTION PROJECT

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Retna Kristiana, Muhammad Kholil and Shella Mikha

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2021.26.33

The implementation of the Breeze Tower Apartment Project, South Tangerang, lndonesia, especially for Architecture work that was delayed due to the owner’s shop drawing investigation was not compliance with the plan, only 77 percent of the total work was completed. Based on that, this research needs to be done to determine alternatives to improve the project time performance by analyzing the causes of the project delay so that losses caused by delays can be minimized. To find out the alternative solutions to improve project time performance towards the most dominant caused of delay where the research was conducted at the Breeze Tower Apartment Project, South Tangerang, lndonesia. Modeling for this research using the software SEM SMARTPLS 3.0. version. Based on the analysis of structural models or path analysis in SEM Smart PLS, it was found that the most dominant cause of delay was the value of the path coefficients between the independent variables and the dependent variable with a value of 0.548, namely design and documents. Based on the results of expert validation, alternative solutions in increasing project time performance against the most dominant caused of delay are designs mat should go through a number of discussion processes to finalize the design, and the design planner must have a comparable design publishing target and in accordance with the target of carrying out the work by proposing the changes to the new design that most relevant to the field conditions, and includes analysis on each alternative design change. This research is limited to reviewing the causes of project delays, especially in architecture work that affects the time performance of the Breeze Tower Apartment Project, South Tangerang, lndonesia. The substance of the study describes 4 factors including material, equipment, environment, human resources to review the most dominant causes of project delays. Quantitative analysis in this study uses SEM Smart PLS tools where the studies raised will focus on architecture work to obtain the alternative solutions to improve the project time performance towards the most dominant causes of delay where this research is carried out on the Breeze Tower Apartment Project, South Tangerang Indonesia.
Pages 26-33
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

Download

Posted by din

DESIGNING AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PLANT FOR TEXTILE INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

ABSTRACT

DESIGNING AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PLANT FOR TEXTILE INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Tanveer Hussain, Abdul Nasir, Ch. Arslan, Rizwan Haider

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2021.22.25

This study focuses on the reduction of COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, cadmium, lead, arsenic, chloride, and sulphate in textile industries. Microbial presence in the wastewater can treat effectively by providing a favorable environment. Solids Retention Time (SRT) is a key functioning element that affects the AS process efficacy. The efficiency of pH, BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, cadmium, lead, arsenic, chloride, and sulphate is taken into measure. Engineering-oriented approach was adopted to treat the aforesaid parameters through the inoculation of microbes in the biological treatment process. The designed Effluent treatment plant was based on screening, equalization, neutralization, aeration/ biological reactor and biological sedimentation. Treatment proves to be more efficient by the addition of cationic and anionic polymer i.e. Coagulant and flocculant. Overall, the efficiency of the designed treatment is taken into COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, cadmium, lead, arsenic, chloride, and sulphate 86.6%, 88.59%, 63.86%, 89.25%, 94.12%, 98.36%, 50%, 33% and 41% respectively. Statistical analysis has been performed that shows Correlation is high with BOD, TDS, TSS, Cd, lead, and As except chloride. in aforesaid parameter if concentration is decreased it means COD concentration will also decreased and has directly proportional relation with each other. As a result of the designed effluent treatment plant, treated effluent is discharged that has no significant negative impacts on the environment.
Pages 22-25
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

Download

Posted by din

CONSERVATION OF EKISTICS-BASED URBAN FORM: CONTROLLING AMALGAMATION OF TWIN CITY GROWTH PATTERN

ABSTRACT

CONSERVATION OF EKISTICS-BASED URBAN FORM: CONTROLLING AMALGAMATION OF TWIN CITY GROWTH PATTERN

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Syed Lakhte Hyder, Lu Feng, Zile Huma

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2021.12.21

This paper analyzes the amalgamation of two different urban forms in the context of twin cities and their conservation according to the contemporary approaches. Despite high interdependence and close connectedness of Islamabad and Rawalpindi as its twin city in Pakistan, their urban forms weave inverse physiognomies, which is vulnerable to amalgamate due to the conurbations process. Both city were conceptualized as “Dyna-metropolis” by Greek architect C.A Doxiadis based on ekistics determinant but deteriorated due to governance issues. The methodological approach for conservation outlines the criteria that protect the future controlled growth and quality to human life, which is not possible through a static form of the old city. Therefore, the adopted method examined Islamabad on two scales like micro (neighborhood-scale) and macro (city-scale) through analysing existing literatures, maps, photographs, case studies and questionnaires to identify the causes of diversion from original Ekistics variables such as modulus and dynapolis. This study argues that conservation is significant not only from the theoretical perspective but also because Islamabad is the first large-scale application of ekistics, designed as ‘city of future’. This study identified several challenges hindering urban development such as rapid urbanization, demand and supply gap of housing, Unaffordable land value, imbalance of ekistics elements and less mix use. The solutions are proposed through the revision of the ekistics logarithm scale for modulus and a new dimension to dynapolis. Finally, if the conservation method is not proposed at the right time, it will not only produce adverse effects on the physical morphology but also affects sensitivity to the science of human settlement.
Pages 12-21
Year 2021
Issue 1
Volume 5

Download

Posted by din

VIBRATION ENERGY HARVESTING TECHNIQUE: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

ABSTRACT

VIBRATION ENERGY HARVESTING TECHNIQUE: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Nik Fakhri Nek Daud, Ruzlaini Ghoni

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.02.2020.46.48

In order to minimize the requirement of external power source and maintenance for electric devices such as wireless sensor networks, the energy harvesting technique based on vibrations has been a dynamic field of studying interest over past years. Researchers have concentrated on developing efficient energy harvesters by adopting new materials and optimizing the harvesting devices. One important limitation of existing energy harvesting techniques is that the power output performance is seriously subject to the resonant frequencies of ambient vibrations, which are often random and broadband. This paper reviews important vibration-to-electricity conversion mechanisms, including theory, modelling methods and the realizations of the piezoelectric, electromagnetic and electrostatic approaches. Different types of energy harvesters that have been designed with nonlinear characteristics are also reviewed. As one of important factors to estimate the power output performance, the energy conversion efficiency of different conversion mechanisms is also summarized. Finally, the challenging issues based on the existing methods and future requirement of energy harvesting are also discussed.
Pages 46-48
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

SOLAR PANEL DUST MONITORING SYSTEM

ABSTRACT

SOLAR PANEL DUST MONITORING SYSTEM

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Nur Amira Shahieda Shairi, Ruzlaini Ghoni, Kharudin Ali

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.02.2020.44.45

Solar energy has been one of the most explored sources of renewable due to its economical source of energy. However, the main barrier for solar energy generation is the present of dust particles on the panel surface that decreases its performance. Hence, persistent monitoring on dust accumulation is of importance to guarantee the optimum power is achieved. Thus, this research aims to develop the real-time dust monitoring system of the solar panel. A dust sensor with IoT will be developed for this purpose. The reading of dust accumulation will be recorded and is accessible online through smartphones or desktop.
Pages 44-45
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

DEVELOPING GUIDELINES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF KASHMIR UNDERPASS PROJECT IN FAISALABAD

ABSTRACT

DEVELOPING GUIDELINES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF KASHMIR UNDERPASS PROJECT IN FAISALABAD

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Muhammad Aurangzaib, Shahbaz Nasir Khan, Muneeb Ahmad, Muhammad Touseef, Abdul Nasir

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.02.2020.39.43

Road development projects are important as they provide economical, political and social benefits but delays can occur. EIA is conducted for every project as required by the Environmental Protection Act of 1997 and the Environmental Policy of Pakistan for the purpose of ensuring mitigation of environmental impacts due to project activities. The Kashmir Underpass project in Faisalabad is assigned to FDA, for the purpose of satisfying growing need of traffic load due to population increase in surrounding areas in newly developed societies. This research examines the different factors of project affecting the environment. Questionnaire approach was utilized to gain insights of environmental impacts due to the project. Results showed that 93% of respondents didn’t knew about EIA and why it is necessary. Respondents were facing impacts from dust particles, noise, traffic, business loss etc. These impacts were analyzed and guidelines were developed for EIA of Kashmir Underpass Project.
Pages 39-43
Year 2020
Issue 2
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

RAINFALL TREND AND IT IMPACT IN KEFFI NASARAWA STATE

ABSTRACT

RAINFALL TREND AND IT IMPACT IN KEFFI NASARAWA STATE

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Ibrahim Sufiyan

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2020.23.26

Rainfall is the vital ingredient and factor of soil nourishment on which crops are grown. The basic agricultural practices all over the world depend on rainfed cultivation for their sustainable development. This study focus on the rainfall trend between 2010 -2018 as it affects crop production in Keffi Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The time series analysis was conducted by using appropriate techniques of data collection and analysis. The linear integration model, quadratic trend model, growth curve model and regression analysis was applied to show the correlation between the rainfall and crop production in the study area. It was discovered that the period of rainy months have high correction and significantly fitted the model which indication high crop yields per harvest.
Pages 23-26
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

IMPROVEMENT OF THE HYDRAULIC JUMP FEATURES USING INCOMPLETE CIRCULAR PILES

ABSTRACT

IMPROVEMENT OF THE HYDRAULIC JUMP FEATURES USING INCOMPLETE CIRCULAR PILES

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Nassar M.A

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2020.19.22

The roughness elements are efficient tools to control the features of the hydraulic jump in the rectangular stilling basins. The present study suggests the use of modified elements to control the features of the free jump. The proposed tool is an incomplete circular pile. The use of piles in a one row with the different setup has been investigated. The measurements showed that the case of piles with the comparative summation areas A/∆=6.72 and the comparative distances between piles X/H1 =0.0 reduced the comparative height and length of the free jump by 11% and 24.6%, respectively. The paper detected the necessary helpful statistical formulas for the phenomenon.
Pages 19-22
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din

GAS LIFT OPTIMIZATION OF A MATURE WELL IN NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA USING INCOMPLETE DATASET: A CASE STUDY

ABSTRACT

GAS LIFT OPTIMIZATION OF A MATURE WELL IN NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA USING INCOMPLETE DATASET: A CASE STUDY

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Oghenegare E. Eyankware, Idaereesoari Harriet Ateke and Okonta Nnamdi Joseph

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2020.15.18

Well DEF, a well located in Niger Delta region of Nigeria was shut down for 7 years. On gearing towards re-starting production, different options such as installation of gas lift mechanism, servicing and installation of packers and valves were evaluated for possibility of increasing well fluid productivity. Hence, this research was focused on optimizing well fluid productivity using PROSPER through installation of continuous gas lift mechanism on an existing well using incomplete dataset; in addition, the work evaluated effect of gas injection rates, wellhead pressure, water cut and gas gravity on efficiency of the artificial lift mechanism for improved well fluid production. Results of the study showed that optimum gas injection rate of 0.6122 MMscf/day produced well fluid production of 264.28 STB/day which is lower than pristine production rate (266 STB/day) of the well. Also, increment in wellhead pressure resulted in decrease in well production, increase in water cut facilitated reduction in well fluid productivity while gas gravity is inversely proportional to well fluid productivity. Based on results obtained, authors concluded that Well DEF does not require gaslift mechanism hence, valves and parkers need to be re-serviced and re-installed for sustained well fluid.
Pages 15-18
Year 2020
Issue 1
Volume 4

Download

Posted by din