Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)

INFLUENCE OF THE GARNET CONCENTRATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS ON THE FORMATION OF LATERITIC MATERIALS AND THE VARIATION GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS IN ROAD BUILDING: CENTER REGION OF CAMEROON

INFLUENCE OF THE GARNET CONCENTRATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS ON THE FORMATION OF LATERITIC MATERIALS AND THE VARIATION GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS IN ROAD BUILDING: CENTER REGION OF CAMEROON

ABSTRACT

INFLUENCE OF THE GARNET CONCENTRATION OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS ON THE FORMATION OF LATERITIC MATERIALS AND THE VARIATION GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS IN ROAD BUILDING: CENTER REGION OF CAMEROON

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Alain Justin Menye, Michel Mbessa, Paul Bilong

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2024.26.33

This study shows the influence of garnet’s content (Cg) of metamorphic rocks on the formation of lateritic materials and their geotechnical road parameters according to the standard test methods of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Less than Cg (10 percent) involves the formation of fewer nodules, small sizes with a percentage of fines (˂ 80 μm) as high as 61.9 percent. 20 to 25 % of Cg induced the formation of more and larger nodules and low fines (17.0 to 5.9 percent) in lateritic gravel (LG). These values of fines (%fines) are opposed to the optimum dry density values of compaction γdopm (2.000, 2.430 and 2.460) at the modified Proctor optimum and bearing capacity CBR to 95 % (36, 60 and 68 %) of GL. Thus, GL can be used gradually in sub-base for T2, T3, T4 traffic and base for T1, T2 traffic. The Multiple Determination Coefficients (MCD) are 0.966 with R2 = 0.933 for γdopm, 0.743 with R2 = 0.552 for ω (%) and 0.961 with R2 = 0.924 for CBR according to Cg and %fines. Thus, Cg influences the compaction parameters and %fines of lateritic materials derived from garnet metamorphic rocks. The higher Cg of the parent rock, the best of geotechnical properties of GL derived.
Pages 26-33
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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RAINFALL AND RAINY DAYS TRENDS IN CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE OVER SAUDI ARABIA : A CASE STUDY OF HA’IL REGION

ABSTRACT

RAINFALL AND RAINY DAYS TRENDS IN CONTEXT OF CLIMATE CHANGE OVER SAUDI ARABIA : A CASE STUDY OF HA’IL REGION

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Salah Abdulmohsin As-Shamari

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2024.13.25

This study used the recorded daily rainfall, available and monitored during 38 years (from January 1, 1978 to December 31, 2015) in total of 8 rain stations and the meteorology station of Ha’il. The purpose of this study is to analyze the variations and trends of rainfall events through a statistical analysis of data recorded. The analyze the rainfall variability has been processed using the coefficient of variation (CV) and Standardized Analyze Index (SAI) and plotted. While the rainfall trends have been analyzed by three statistically methods widely used: Simple Moving-Average (SMA), Homogeneity of variance (Hartley’s Fmax-ratio) and Semi-averages. The trends analysis of rainfall show that the fluctuations or variations in climatic parameters is a recurring phenomena in the studied stations. Inter-annual variability of rainfall and the cumulative frequency of rainy days are characterized by the high coefficients of variation. In addition, the values of Chi square test reveals the significant Standardized Anomaly Index (SAI) of rainfall. Accordingly, the results contain a total of 18 increasing trends (37.5%) and 30 decreasing trends (62.5%). These results indicate that the aspects of climate change in Ha’il region accelerating in recent decades. This situation may have severe socioeconomic repercussions in many sectors especially the agriculture and surface water resources.
Pages 13-25
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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BUILDING THE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM IN LIBYA

ABSTRACT

BUILDING THE PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM IN LIBYA

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Rabia Almahdi Ali Khalil

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2024.07.12

Traffic congestion resulting from the escalation in the number of vehicles in cities, as a result of the increase in population and building density, requires the provision of appropriate infrastructure, especially transportation and logistics systems, that meet the necessary needs of the population, to meet the current multiple challenges, through the introduction of various means of transportation. This is done according to plans that complement each other, such as using environments that encourage pedestrians and cycling and their own lanes, light rail, metro, rapid buses, in addition to public transport buses and others, through the development of high-level road projects, such as annual and main roads and others, in a way Integrated with city planning, and adopting modern technology such as smart applications in transportation, which will facilitate access and participation in developing the city, and achieving transportation integration. Therefore, the research problem is that there is no clear vision of the developments in transportation systems that have increased over time, whether public transportation systems or private transportation, which should be made possible through sustainable planning and design standards in cities. The importance of research is highlighted in trying to diagnose the obstacles of current transportation systems and their contemporary developments, and trying to evaluate them and maximize their potential by applying international standards and approved studies in this field.
Pages 07-12
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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APPLICABILITY OF 3D LASER SCANNING TECHNOLOGY IN MINING SUBSIDENCE MONITORING

ABSTRACT

APPLICABILITY OF 3D LASER SCANNING TECHNOLOGY IN MINING SUBSIDENCE MONITORING

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Lihui Wang, Rongfei Yang, Yong Lei, Chengcheng Fan, Jibo Liu, Chuanjian Ren

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2024.01.06

3D laser scanning technology has been applied in mining subsidence monitoring to some extents. Based on the existing observation conditions in the experimental area, the laser point cloud data was collected; Then the methods of point cloud data denoising, registration, filtering and subsidence basin extraction were discussed. Finally, the processing results were analyzed and tested. The results show that: (1) The orientation method has better applicability in mining subsidence monitoring based on TLS, and can avoid the error accumulation caused by the registration method; (2) The error rate of the Irregular Triangulation filtering method with additional constraints on the selection of ground points is 4.22%, which is better than the fitting method; (3) The subsidence basin obtained by TLS has high accuracy, and the mean square error of the difference between TLS and surface subsidence measured by leveling is 3.3 cm.
Pages 01-06
Year 2024
Issue 1
Volume 8

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SOLAR ENERGY ADAPTATION AND EFFICIENCY ACROSS DIVERSE NIGERIAN AND GLOBAL CLIMATES: A REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT

ABSTRACT

SOLAR ENERGY ADAPTATION AND EFFICIENCY ACROSS DIVERSE NIGERIAN AND GLOBAL CLIMATES: A REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Gabriel Gbenga Ojo, Oluwaseun Augustine Lottu, Tina Chinyere Ndiwe, Uchenna Izuka, Nwakamma Ninduwezuor-Ehiobu

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2023.99.107

Solar energy stands as a transformative force in addressing the world’s energy needs while mitigating the effects of climate change. This comprehensive review paper explores solar energy adaptation and efficiency across diverse climates, focusing on Nigeria, a nation grappling with energy access disparities and environmental challenges. The paper surveys technological advancements, climate-specific considerations, policy and regulation, environmental and economic impacts, challenges, and future directions in solar energy. Real-world case studies from rural Nigeria to Canada illustrate the versatility of solar technologies, while policy frameworks and regulatory approaches are analyzed to provide insights into effective solar energy promotion. The paper underscores the interconnected nature of environmental and economic benefits. It emphasizes the importance of tailored solutions and community engagement. Technological innovation, policy alignment, and capacity building address challenges such as intermittency, climate-related factors, and upfront costs. Future directions emphasize technological innovation, policy alignment, energy access, capacity building, international collaboration, public awareness, and monitoring and evaluation. As Nigeria and the world navigate a sustainable and solar-powered future, the sun emerges as a boundless energy source, illuminating homes, powering industries, and fueling economic growth while preserving the environment for future generations.
Pages 99-107
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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GREEN DRILLING STRATEGIES: THE RISE OF TECHNICAL EXPERTISE AND ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP

ABSTRACT

GREEN DRILLING STRATEGIES: THE RISE OF TECHNICAL EXPERTISE AND ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Joy Otibhor Olurin, Kelechi Anthony Ofonagoro, Joachim Osheyor Gidiagba, Adeyinka Alex Banso, Olawe Alaba Tula, Sodrudeen Abo lore Ayodeji

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.02.2023.191.199

In recent years, the oil sector has witnessed a paradigm shift towards environmental stewardship, with green drilling strategies emerging at the forefront. This paper seeks to delineate the rise of technical expertise and the adoption of environmentally friendly drilling strategies in the oil sector. The study is grounded on a comprehensive literature survey that explores the theoretical foundations of green drilling and environmental stewardship, coupled with an analysis of practical implementations and case studies. The methodology adopted in this research encompasses a meticulous literature search strategy, involving the selection of pertinent databases, formulation of keywords, and determination of search criteria. This approach facilitated the identification of inclusive and exclusive criteria for green drilling literature, paving the way for a robust data extraction and synthesis process. The study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of green drilling strategies, identify and analyze the existing challenges and opportunities, and delineate the scope of future trends and developments in this domain. Findings from the study reveal that green drilling strategies, underpinned by advanced technical expertise, have significantly mitigated the environmental footprint of oil extraction activities. These strategies have fostered a new era of environmental stewardship, characterized by reduced greenhouse gas emissions, minimized waste generation, and the conservation of natural habitats. Moreover, the study unveils a promising future outlook, where continuous innovations in green drilling technologies are anticipated to further enhance environmental sustainability. In conclusion, the paper offers strategic recommendations for the oil sector to foster the adoption of green drilling strategies. It advocates for collaborative efforts among stakeholders, investment in research and development, and the formulation of policies that promote environmental conservation. The study posits that integrating green drilling strategies is vital for environmental preservation and instrumental in sustaining the oil sector’s viability in the long run.
Pages 191-199
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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ASPEN PLUS CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF BASIC RAW HARD WATER TREATMENT AND SOFTENING OPERATION

ABSTRACT

ASPEN PLUS CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF BASIC RAW HARD WATER TREATMENT AND SOFTENING OPERATION

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Abdulhalim Musa Abubakar, Musa Askira Abubakar, Moses NyoTonglo Arowo, Peter Simon, Luqman Buba Umdagas, Tahiru Saka, Siddiq Nasar, Bukar Ibrahim Askira, Saroj Raj Kafle

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.02.2023.178.190

Hard water can cause scaling concerns in pipes, turbines, boilers, and heat exchangers used in mining, oil and gas, and industrial applications. It also interferes with nearly every housekeeping chore, from laundry and dishwashing to bathing and personal hygiene. ENRTL-SR and PITZER property models in Aspen Plus V8.8 were chosen during the modelling and simulation of soft water production from a hypothesized hard water stream containing sand. Findings show that, under normal conditions, about 3 m3 of soft pure water can be generated from approximately 40 m3 of raw water using right unit configuration and treatment solvent proportion. Drawbacks which would have address several limitations faced during the simulation, as concluded, can be solved using suggested alternative software tools. Water treatment scientist should try to simulate the same process using Aspen Plus utilizing real data from an existing water treatment facility to correctly test for effectiveness of the software tool. Modification of several existing water treatment plants across the globe to soften water produced is recommended, given its suitability for both domestic and industrial use.
Pages 178-190
Year 2023
Issue 2
Volume 7

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EVALUATION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS ON PROJECT SITES IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, F.C.T, ABUJA

ABSTRACT

EVALUATION OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS ON PROJECT SITES IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, F.C.T, ABUJA

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Micheal, F., Mahmoud, A., Ishaya, K.S , Kpalo, S.Y

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2023.94.98

Assessment of building construction material on building sites is a function that critically contributes to the achievement of the project goals. Poor construction materials in construction projects sites has many issues which contribute to it such as: wastage of construction materials, and improper handling on site. This work aims to consider the evaluation of construction materials on project sites. Questionnaires from field survey, interview and site observation were the source of data collected. Descriptive statistics including frequency and mean index score method was used for the study. The study reveals that most problems such as conditions of weather, management of excess materials as well as low response from company to site were identified with mean value above the average mean of 3.32. The study also indicated that most wastage, such as: change in design, improper scheduling of work plan, and lack of supervision in usage of materials observed with mean value above the average mean of 3.37. From the results of the study, it was concluded that, most activities on management of construction materials which are challenging that has to do with wastage in building construction project sites and management of construction material, were identified in the study area. Thus, the study recommends that the consultants, contractors, clients and other professionals that work in the building construction industry should upgrade their commitment toward staff training as well as developing the necessary skills needed in the industry.
Pages 94-98
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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SAFETY, QUALITY CONTROL, AND SUSTAINABILITY IN CONSTRUCTION: EXPLORING THE NEXUS – A REVIEW

ABSTRACT

SAFETY, QUALITY CONTROL, AND SUSTAINABILITY IN CONSTRUCTION: EXPLORING THE NEXUS – A REVIEW

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Joy Otibhor Olurin, Joachim Osheyor Gidiagba, Vincent Ebhohime Ehiaguina, Tina Chinyere Ndiwe, Gabriel Gbenga Ojo, Oluwaseun Ayo Ogunjobi

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2023.72.93

This comprehensive review elucidates the intertwined relationship between safety, quality control, and sustainability within the construction sector, highlighting the critical need for integrating these elements to promote optimal project outcomes and long-term industry advancement. The study commences with an in-depth exploration of existing literature, focusing on diverse methodologies, strategies, and frameworks employed to enhance safety and enforce stringent quality control, thus contributing to the overall sustainability of construction projects. Safety is identified as a paramount concern in construction, significantly influencing both quality and sustainability. The lack of safety not only jeopardizes human lives but also results in cost overruns and project delays, undermining the overall quality and sustainability. Quality control, herein, is discussed in relation to its pivotal role in minimizing errors and rework, ensuring adherence to standards, and facilitating the attainment of sustainability goals through resource efficiency and waste reduction. Sustainability in construction is dissected through its three foundational pillars: economic viability, social equity, and environmental integrity. This review details how the integration of safety and quality control significantly impacts these pillars, highlighting the synergy between construction practices, resource optimization, stakeholder well-being, and ecological preservation. Empirical studies, theoretical frameworks, and case studies form the basis of this review, providing a multifaceted understanding of the interdependence between safety, quality control, and sustainability in construction. The assessment reveals that the construction industry is progressively acknowledging the inherent connection between these components, with contemporary practices and policies increasingly reflecting an integrated approach. The article concludes by underscoring the imperative for continuous research and development, innovations, and policy interventions to strengthen the nexus between safety, quality control, and sustainability in construction. It also advocates for a holistic approach that unifies these elements to drive industry resilience, promote sustainable development, and ensure the well-being and prosperity of communities and the environment.
Pages 72-93
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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CONCENTRATION LEVELS OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROFILES AND QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER: A CASE STUDY OF SOUTHERN IJAW, BAYELSA STATE, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

CONCENTRATION LEVELS OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROFILES AND QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER: A CASE STUDY OF SOUTHERN IJAW, BAYELSA STATE, SOUTHERN NIGERIA

Journal: Engineering Heritage Journal (GWK)
Author: Nwankwoala, H.O, Peterside, A.N, Hart, A.I

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited

DOI: 10.26480/gwk.01.2023.60.71

This study examined the concentration levels of physico-chemical profiles of groundwater quality of communities in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The seasonal variation of groundwater quality were evaluated. Fifteen (15) communities within the LGA were selected and groundwater from hand-dug well (HDW-15samples) and borehole (BH-15samples) was sourced during the wet season (July) and dry season (March) and analyzed for seasonal variations. The difference in the mean of the parameters investigated during the dry and wet season revealed the difference in concentration level as influenced by the season attributes. The HDW showed a very strong correlation in wet and dry season physicochemical properties as well as no significant difference in the physicochemical properties of groundwater at both seasons. Also, the results of borehole water sample showed a very strong correlation in wet and dry season physic-chemical properties with no significant difference in the physicochemical properties of water at both seasons. There are similarities in various natural and anthropogenic activities influencing the concentrations during both wet and dry seasons. The mean values of parameters such as pH, TDS, TSS, Bicarbonate, Cl, SO34, NO2, Ca, Mg, K and P are within the permissible limit of WHO and NSDWQ during both seasons except TC.
Pages 60-71
Year 2023
Issue 1
Volume 7

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